Injuries are quite common in sports. Proper care, warming up, muscle stretching, and cooling down exercises may keep injuries to a bay to certain extent, but cannot assure a complete recovery. Here’s a list of few injuries, their causes and recovery.
Sprain and Strain
A sprain is a stretch or tear of a ligament, which is the connective tissue that joins bones together in your body. A strain is a stretch or tear of a muscle or tendon. Tendons connect your muscles to your bones.
Sprains and strains are caused by a fall or twist. Any area of the body is susceptible to this type of injury, but depending on the particular sport, some areas are more at risk than others. Like tennis players are more likely to suffer hand and elbow sprains and strains while an athlete is at a greater risk for those of the leg and ankle. Ankle sprains are the most common and are generally caused by running on an uneven surface or landing off-balance after jumping.
Sprains and strains may be evidenced by pain, bruising, inflammation or swelling of the affected.
The first step in treating a sprain or strain with proper rest and suggested therapies. Recovery time depends on the age, general health, and the severity of the sprain or strain. A more severe sprain or strain may require physical therapy or surgery. Consulting a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment also helps.
Bursitis and Tendonitis
It is an inflammation of a bursa sac. Bursa sacs are located between bone and skin. Bursa sacs are located between bone and skin.
They allow the skin to slide over bony prominences in the body, such as the knee, shoulder, and elbow. When a bursa sac becomes irritated and inflamed, it causes pain and discomfort in the nearby joints. Tendonitis is an inflammation or irritation of a tendon.
Mild to severe pain, discomfort, tenderness and possible swelling in the affected area.
R.I.C.E (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) and anti-inflammatory medications are the first steps to decrease the inflammation and swelling. In extreme cases of bursitis, a needle is injected into the bursa sac to remove the excess fluid and relieve the pain.
Tennis Elbow also known as ‘lateral epicondylitis’ is an inflammation of the tendons attached to the elbow.
The most common cause of tennis elbow is prolonged and overuse of arm and forearm muscles. People, who are into sports like tennis and golf which dominate the use of forearm, are more likely to develop this condition.
Pain and discomfort around the bony prominence of the elbow, possibly travelling to the forearm and hand. Pain usually occurs when moving the arm or grasping or squeezing something. However, pain may persist even while at rest.
Wearing an elbow splint may help to reduce pain and allow the muscles and tendons to rest and heal. Ice fermentation also helps to decrease inflammation and pain. Anti-inflammatory medications can also be taken to decrease inflammation and pain.
The hamstring is the group of three muscles at the back of the leg. A pull includes any tearing or stretching done to the tendons of this area. Hamstring pulls are often caused by sudden shifts in speed or beginning a sprint from a standing position. Hamstring injuries are characterized by a sharp, sudden pain in the back of the thigh that may cause sudden weakness in the area.
Sudden and severe pain during workouts, along with a throbbing or snapping feeling is experienced. Pain in the back of the thigh and lower buttock when walking, straightening the leg, or leaning over. Tenderness and bruising.
‘RICE’ is important to follow with hamstring injuries, especially the Rest aspect of the treatment. The muscle should be rested for 2 to 3 weeks, depending on the severity of the strain. As soon as pain subsides, light stretching should be done to retain flexibility and help return the muscle to normal. If the pain persists for more than a week medical intervention is a must. Inability to contract the muscle can signal a complete rupture of the muscle, which requires surgical repair.
Runner’s knee emerges from the misalignment of the kneecap in its groove and is the most common form of knee injuries. When a runner takes a step, the kneecap usually slides up and down in its groove with no problems.
Due to its misalignment, it rubs against the sides of the groove and wears on the cartilage on the groove and on the back of the kneecap.
Building of fluid causes swelling and discomfort. Pain is centered in the back of the knee after running exercises. Popping or grinding sensations in the knee with weakness in thigh muscles. This is a repetitive injury which generally does not occur from a sudden movement.
RICE, proper anti-inflammatory medicines and Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), will help with pain and swelling. However, these drugs can have side effects, like an increased risk of bleeding and ulcers. They should be used only under medical recommendations. Invasive treatments and surgeries are also opted sometimes.